Bodrum (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈbodɾum]) is a port city in Muğla Province, southwestern Turkey, on the southern coast of Bodrum Peninsula at the entrance to the Gulf of Gökova. The population was 35,795 at the 2012 census. The surrounding towns and villages had an additional population of 100,522, with a total of 136,317 inhabitants residing within the district's borders.

The city was called Halicarnassus by the Ancient Greeks (Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός). Halicarnassus later fell under Persian rule and become the capital city of satrapy of Caria. Mausolus ruled Caria from here, and after his death in 353 BC, his wife built the Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Macedonian forces laid siege to the city and captured it in 334 BCE. After Alexander's death, the city passed to successive Hellenistic rulers and was briefly an independent kingdom until 129 BCE when it came under Roman rule. A series of natural disasters and repeated pirate attacks wreaked havoc on the area and the city lost its importance by the time of the Byzantine era. The Knights Hospitaller arrived in 1402 and used the remains of the Mausoleum as a quarry to build Bodrum Castle. The castle and its town became known as Petronium, whence the modern name Bodrum derives. After the conquest of Rhodes by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1522 the town fell under Ottoman control as the Knights Hospitaller relocated to Europe.

By the 20th century the city's economy was mainly based on fishing and sponge diving, although tourism has become the main industry in Bodrum since the late 20th century. The abundance of visitors has also contributed to Bodrum's retail and service industry. Milas–Bodrum Airport and Kos International Airport are the main airports that serve the city. The port has ferries to other nearby Turkish and Greek ports and islands, Kos being the most important one. Most of the public transportation in the city is based on local share taxis and buses.


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